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February 1953 E-853 

United States Department of Agriculture 

Agricultural Research Administration 

Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine 



PRELIMINARY TESTS WITH WASHES TO REMOVE 
ASPARAGUS BEETLE EGGS FROM ASPARAGUS 

By Horatio C. Mason-^-' 
Division of Truck Crop and Garden Insect Investigations 



The presence of eggs of the asparagus beetle ( Crioceris asparagi 
(L.)) on asparagus tips at the time of harvest may present a serious 
problem for the packer, Losses have been suffered because Federal 
food inspectors have condemned processed asparagus that was found to 
be contaminated with insect eggs. This danger has caused some packers 
to shorten their processing season several days by either delaying the 
starting date or discontinuing operations earlier than usual. This 
practice alone is extremely costly. 

Investigations were started at Beltsville, Md., in 1950 to devise a 
method of removing these eggs. The main effort was spent in developing 
a wash formulation suitable for packing plant use that would not affect 
the quality of the asparagus. 

Procedure 

2/ 
Asparagus tips were generally harvested near Elkton, Md.,— and 

stored in an electric refrigerator until used. The asparagus was never 

treated on the day it was cut. A wide-mouth gallon glass jar with a 

screw-top lid was used for all treatments. Several tips, 4 to 6 inches 

long, infested with a known number of eggs were placed in the jar with 

1/2 gallon of wash formulation. The closed jar was tilted back and forth 

by hand for 1, 2, or 3 minutes so as to produce a slight agitation. This 

procedure, which will be referred to as a wash, was immediately followed 

by one or two rinses for 1 or 2 minutes in 1/2 gallon of tap water. The 



1/ W. N. Smith and C. R. Carter gave assistance in these investiga- 
tions. R. A. Fulton, I. Hornstein, and E. L. Gooden, Division of In- 
secticide Investigations, made helpful suggestions. 

2/ Thanks are due to George McKeown, a grower near Elkton, Md., 
for supplying most of the asparagus for these tests. 






( ) 

ria.ll q 

y unti: 
■ 

eggs 
1 on a table in • • 1 labo. I 

follov - not r "d 

be 
ed on 
1 
t of the washe minutes at approximat' 

mulations m -d at about 124 97°, 84 7°, 

r rinses of 1 mim 
( so made at 2 10°, 

an(i i . eggs on 14 asparagus t. used : 

ea the ii. ial availab. 

agus beetle eggs were no lonj: 
e eon )od grade of marketable 

ose. In general the procedure was the 
h was usu; but s< a 

*es, a 5 generally foli 

2- running r. 

first td in the sa: 

nts most of or 

• I . although s< 1 minute. Tl 

. minu ormul 

.. I 

77 eg| 

is no lonp- 

us 

■ • ■ 

S ; 



3 - 



A: Triton X-100 (alkylated aryl polyether alcohol) 

B: Triton X-155 (dimeric alkylated aryl polyether alcohol) 

C: NNO (hexitan partial fatty acid ester of lauric acid) 

D: Tween 85 (polyoxyethylene sorbitan trioleate) 

E: Tween 81 (polyoxyethylene sorbitan monooleate) 

F: Tween 80 (polyoxyethylene sorbitan monooleate) 

G: Tween 60 (polyoxyethylene sorbitan monostearate) 

H: Tween 40 (polyoxyethylene sorbitan monopalmitate) 

I: Tween 21 (polyoxyethylene sorbitan monolaurate) 

J: Tween 20 (polyoxyethylene sorbitan monolaurate) 

K: Span 85 (sorbitan trioleate) 

L: Span 80 (sorbitan monooleate) 

M: Span 20 (sorbitan monolaurate) 

N: Neutronyx 600 (aromatic polyglycol ether) 

P: Igepal CA Extra High Concentrate (an alkyl aryl polyethylene 

gycol ether) 

Q: Igepal CA Extra (an alkyl aryl polyethylene glycol ether) 

R: Duponol WAT (triethanolamine salt of alcohol sulfates) 

S: Duponol OS (higher alcohol sulfate) 

T: Sterox SK (polyoxyethylene ether) 

U: Cerfak 1300 (alkyl polyoxyethylene alcohol) 

X: Emulfor ELA (polyethylene ether of a long-chain fatty acid) 

AA: Alrosol C (fatty alkylol amine condensate) 

BB: Aresket 300 (sodium salt of monobutyl biphenyl monosulfonic acid) 

CC: Turkey red 

EE: Ivory Snow (soap) 

FF: Dreft (sodium lauryl sulfate) 

GG: Duz (soap) 

HH: Santomerse No. 1 (alkyl aryl sodium sulfonate) 

II: Santomerse S (alkyl aryl sodium sulfonate) 

JJ: Emcol H-47 (fatty acid condensation product of a polyhydric 
alcohol) 

KK: Igepal No. 300 (an alkyl aryl polyethylene glycol ether) 

LL: Amsco Solv A (naphtha) 

MM: S/V Sovacide 544 B (methylated aromatic petroleum oil) 

NN: Gulf Naphtha 

PP: Skellysolve D (mixed heptane - boiling range 171o-239°F.) 

QQ: Skellysolve B (petroleum naphtha, normal hexane, boiling 
range l40°-160°F.) 

RR: Skellysolve A (normal pentane, boiling range 83°- 100° F.) 

SS: Polyethylene glycol (400) monooleate 






I 

md raetl 

■ 

s 
this wash. Tl 
fol 

iuene wash, did not reduce the injury: Auxiliary material A i 

0.1, l.u, or 2. . sodi\. arbon. 0, 

riyl alcohol 1.0, solium hydroxide 0.5, sodium chloride 
and v. e sulfur 1.0. vperiments conducted lal 

lilt- grade of asparagus <-*ggs o lon^ 

rtain auxili. :ials included in the 

toluene wash elin.inated 01 An emulsion containing 

11, and 0.08 percent 
Lal A a: • d to be noninjurious, but when the percentages of 

oil and r al A were reduced there was a li^'ht inju: . emulsion 

taining 0.1 t of toluene, 0.5 percent of ken and 0.04 pt 

rial A also . be noninjurious. When the toluene 

in the lat - .ulsion was irn percent, th< 

injury, as was t/ • :i that contained 0.25 pel of 

toluene, 1 p« <>■ kerosi md 0.04 percent of A and one that con- 

tan toluene, 2 | nt of kerosene, and 0. nt 

Se] >f the following n 

) iH, i- ■ 

0.1 .. .'.', KK, S. I I . 

■■) • f toluene plus 0, 

sulfite 

with chloroform, 

::t . 



r 



- 5 



The following formulations were tested for the removal of eggs 
(figures in percent): 

Acetic acid: 2.0; 0.5; 0.1. 

Acetone: 10.0; 5.0; 5.0 plus A 0.04; 2.0; 0.5. 

Ammonium hydroxide: 10.0; 5.0; 2.0; 2.0 plus A 0.04; 0.1. 

Boric acid: 5.0 

Butyl carbitol: 5.0; 2.0 and 1.0, each plus A 0.04; 1.0. 

Carbon tetrachloride: 2.0 and 1.0, each plus A 0.08; 2.0, 1.0, 
0.5, and 0.1, each plus A 0.04. 

Chloroform: 2.0, 1.0, and 0.5, each plus A 0.08; 0.5 plus A 0.04. 

Corn oil: 5.0, 2.0, 0.5, and 0.1, each plus A 0.04; 2.0 plus 
F 0.04; 0.5 plus chloroform 2.0 plus A 0.04; 0.5 plus chloro- 
form 1.0 plus A 0.04; 0.5 plus chloroform 1.0 plus A 0.08. 

Cottonseed oil: 5.0, 2.0, 1.0, 0.5, and 0.1, each plus A 0.04; 
0.5 plus F 0.04; 0.5 plus C 0.04. 

Ethyl acetate: 2.0 plus A 0.04. 

Ethyl alcohol: 10.0; 5.0; 2.0; 2.0 plus A 0.04. 

Ethyl ether: 5.0, 2.0, 0.5, and 0.1, each plus A 0.04. 

Ethylene dichloride: 1.0 plus A 0.04. 

Hydrochloric acid: 5.0; 2.0; 2.0 plus A 0.04. 

Isopropanol: 2.0; 2.0 plus A 0.04. 

Kerosene: 5.0, 2.0, 1.0, and 0.5, each plus A 0.04. 

Methyl alcohol: 2.0 plus A 0.04. 

Methylated naphthalene: 2.0 plus A 0.16 or A 0.08; 2.0, 1.0, 

0.5, and 0.1, each plus A 0.04; 1.0 plus F 0.04; 0.1 plus A 0.02. 

Peanut oil: 5.0, 2.0, and 0.5, each plus A 0.04. 

Petroleum naphtha (QQ): 2.0, 1.0, and 0.5, each plus A 0.04. 

Pyrethrum alcohol extract: pyrethrins 0.25 plus A 0.08; 
pyrethrins 0.05 and 0.005, each plus A 0.04. 

Sodium hydroxide: 2.0. 

Soybean oil (crude): 1.0 plus A 0.04. 

Toluene: 1.0 plus A 0.04; 1.0 plus A 0.04 plus acetic acid 2.0; 
0.5; 0.5 plus A 0.08; 0.5 plus A 0.04; 0.5 plus C 0.04; 0.5 
plus F 0.04; 0.5 plus A 0.04 plus ammonium hydroxide 2.0; 
0.5 plus A 0.04 plus ammonium hydroxide 0.5; 0.5 plus 
A 0.04 plus acetic acid 2.0; 0.5 plus A 0.04 plus acetic acid 
0.5; 0.5 plus A 0.04 plus acetic acid 0.1; 0.5 plus A 0.04 plus 
acetic acid 0.05; 0.5 plus A 0.04 plus sodium bicarbonate 1.0; 
0.5 plus A 0.04 plus ethyl alcohol 1.0; 0.5 plus A 0.04 plus 
cottonseed oil 1.0; 0.5 plus A 0.04 plus cottonseed oil 0.5; 
0.5 plus A 0.04 plus cottonseed oil 0.25; 0.5 plus A 0.04 plus 
boric acid 1.0; 0.5 plus A 0.04 plus magnesium carbonate 0.5; 
0.3 plus A 0.04 plus acetic acid 0.05; 0.2 plus A 0.04 plus 
QQ 0.2; 0.1 plus A 0.04 

Xylene: 2.0 plus A 0.08; 2.0, 1.0, 0.5, and 0.1, each plus 
A 0.04; 2.0 plus C 0.04; 2.0 plus F 0.04. 



r )l 

H app> 
I 

or mc 
the c. *.h 

ason gav ing a< 

lso th< 
at 1 •• as good as the 3-mim. Ument at 100°. 

•ggs v and not on salable asparagus tips. 

lcult to ren .an those on tips, 

although s did not ir. that to be the ca:- 

hat had been held d storag d 4 days af" 

vas used in -^39 and 40. The asparagus trea- 

ts mo: lOusly injured than that treated 4 da 

arvest. T h is may be -eason why, in some of the of 

nents, di . irations of the same formulations varied 

h in the degree ol 

The nature of the injur asparagus varied witl da 

3. In so: ses there was only slight wilting; in others U 

,'ht tO severe loss 1: '■'< OK I lor 

•. and the tips had a brown dead appearance the 
following day. Often the wiltin Ming v.* 

th some of I 

ovulations immi 'hat r< 

Aft, ad 

oked a 
• oil th '•• Kurth. 

, wii. in 

I 
ha i . 



7 - 



Table 1 .--Formulations that removed at least 80 percent of asparagus beetle eggs 
from asparagus tips or foliage without causing more than light injury. 1951. 



Formulations (percent in water) 



Toluene 



Deodorized 
kerosene 



Other materials 



Exper- 

ment 

No. 



Temper- 
ature of 
wash, 
OF. 



Eggs 



Num- 
ber 



Percent 
removed! 



' Injury 



Tips treated for 3 minutes 



0.5 



.25 



3 


.0 


C 0.04 






8 




100 


144 


97 


Trace 






B 0.04, 


c 


0.04 


5 




100 


168 


89 


Light 


2 


.0 


A 0.02 






7 




100 


118 


92 


None 






B 0.04 






3,5,9 




100 


435 


85 


Light 






A 0.04, 


c 


0.04 


6 




100 


163 


93 


Trace 






B 0.04, 


c 


0.04 


5,8 




100 


296 


92 


Do. 


1 


.5 


A 0.04, 


c 


0.04 


6 




100 


151 


85 


Light 


1 


.0 


Kerosene 


1, B 0.04 


7 




100 


108 


84 


None 


1 


.5 


A 0.02, 


c 


0.02 


12, 14 




100 


231 


87 


Trace 






C 0.02, 


u 


0.02 


24 




100 


130 


94 


None 


1 


.25 


A 0.02 






12 




100 


118 


87 


Trace 






C 0.08 






17 




100 


57 


83 


None 






C 0.04 






12, 14 




100 


225 


96 


Trace 






C 0.02 






12 




100 


116 


96 


Do. 






H 0.02 






27 




100 


36 


95 


Do. 






J 0.04 






26 




100 


75 


88 


None 






M 0.04 






23 




100 


70 


94 


Trace 






T 0.02 






20, 22 




100 


157 


97 


Do. 






U 0.04 






21,22, 


24 


100 


227 


89 


Light 






U 0.02 






21 




100 


85 


95 


Trace 






A 0.04, 


R 


0.04 


20, 22 




100 


161 


88 


Do. 






A 0.02, 


C 


0.04 


13,14, 


15 


100 


373 


85 


Do. 






A 0.02, 


C 


0.02 


12,13, 
16 


14, 


100 


483 


89 


Do. 






A 0.01, 


c 


0.04 


15 




100 


113 


95 


Do. 






A 0.02, 


L 


0.04 


25 




100 


73 


82 


None 






C 0.04, 


R 0.04 


20 




100 


85 


86 


Do. 






C 0.02, 


R 


0.04 


20 




100 


82 


87 


Light 






C 0.04, 


P 0.02 


17 




100 


57 


84 


None 






C 0.02, 


P 0.02 


16,17, 


18 


100 


467 


81 


Do. 












18 




110 


65 


89 


Do. 






C 0.04, 


Q 


0.04 


14,15, 


16 


100 


352 


92 


Trace 






C 0.02, 


Q 0.02 


16 




100 


115 


92 


None 






C 0.04, 


U 


0.02 


24 




100 


67 


88 


Light 






C 0.026 


, U 0.026 


24, 27 




100 


168 


96 


None 



8- 



















• 




at 






1 






















100 




80 








• rt A 


■ 4*. *t 






' 










IUU 






•ce 










100 




86 








. . 


, 


100 


236 










I , 




100 


51 


84 


None 






1.04, I 




100 




80 


Trace 






••, : 




100 


70 




None 








23 


100 




84 


Do. 






, 




100 




98 


. 






, 




100 




89 


nt 






A 


10, 1 1, 1 


. 








.1 


Digitized by the Internet Arch 


ive: 


S'one 






111 dSJ \o 


100 




86 
81 






r) 




1-2 7 


100 2 


. 








1.2 


I 




100 




86 


'■ 






: 
















. 








98 


tit 






. 












.1. 




.01 








81 








.01, ! 








Q Z. 










. 




1 04 


OO 


.1 




1 
































1 
















. 
















i 












. 


























' 



http://archive.org/details/praspaeggsOOunit 



-9 



Table 1. --Continued. 



Formulations (percent in water) 



Toluene 



Deodorized 
kerosene 



Other materials 



Exper- 
iment 

No. 



Temper 
ature of 
wash, 

°F. 



Eggs 



Num- 
ber 



Percent 
removed 



Injury 



Check (water) 





Orthodichloro- 














0.25 


benzene 0.1 plus 
A 0.02 


34 




100 


28 


93 


Lighl 





Trichlorobenzene 
0.1 plus A 0.02 


33 




100 


25 


88 


Do. 


1 




28- 


34 


100 


261 


28 


None 



Foliage treated for 2 minutes 



0.25 



1.25 



0.5 



Check (water) 



C 


.04 








36 






104 


27 


100 


Light 


C 


.02 








36 






104 


27 


89 


Do. 


C 


.01 








36 






104 


30 


97 


Do. 


I o. 


04 








31 






108 


65 


91 


None 


C 


.04, 


Q 


. 


04 


36 






109 


26 


96 


Light 


C 


.02, 


u 


0. 


02 


36 






109 


29 


100 


Trace 


E 


.01 








37, 38, 
42 


39 


109 


133 


92 


Do. 


E 


.005 








38, 


39, 


42 


109 


79 


91 


None 


F 


.01 








35, 


39 




109 


57 


93 


Trace 


F 


.005 








39 






109 


27 


100 


Light 


G 


.01 








38 






109 


27 


93 


None 


G 


.005 








38 






109 


29 


93 


Do. 


I 0.01 








30, 


31, 


37 


109 


112 


95 


Trace 


N 


.01 








37 






109 


26 


92 


Light 


S 0. 


08 








40 






109 


26 


100 


Trace 


S 0. 


04 








40 






109 


26 


100 


Light 


S 0. 


02 








40 






109 


27 


100 


Do. 


AA 0.02 








39 






108 


26 


96 


Do. 


AA 


0.01 








39 






109 


27 


100 


Trace 


E 


.005, 


IS 


[ c 


1.005 


37 
37 






100 
104 


28 
26 


96 
89 


Light 
Trace 












36, 


37, 


38 


109 


80 


96 


None 












37, 


38 




1091/ 


52 


96 


Do. 












37 






113 


26 


96 


Trace 


E 


.005, 


s 





.02 


40 






109 


26 


100 


Light 


E 


.005, 


AA 


0.005 


39 






109 


27 


100 


Trace 


I 0. 


005, 


U 





.005 


37 






109 


27 


100 


Light 


I 0. 


005, 


N 





.005 


37 






109 


26 


81 


Trace 


C 


• 01, 


U 


0. 


01 


37 






109 


26 


100 


Light 












36- 


43 




109 


223 


10 


None 



1/ Wash for 1 minute. 













. 


0. 


. 






. 

































• • • 

A 0. 

A 0.04 plus C 0. 

0.08, A 0.1 .04 

>lus C 0.04 
P 

2 plus C 0.02, A 0.04 

B 0.02 plus F 0.02; B 0. 
plu^ F 0. 
plus ( 
2 plus i 

.04 
I 

IS MM 0.. 

. I P 0.04 

RR 

plus \ .5; A 0.04 

plus i: 

NN ' . 
kc C . ■• N 

1.25 A 0, plus : 

A 0.04; A 0.04 I tor 

. j D 
P .08; R 0.04 

uo, 

. . . • 

is 

,04 

1 0, 



11 



Deodorized 
Toluene kerosene Other materials 

E 0.005 plus N 0.005 

CC 0.02; E 0.01 plus N 0.01; E 0.02; G 0.005 plus 

N 0.005; G 0.01 plus N 0.01; I 0.04; X 0.01; 

X 0.02; G 0.02 
E 0.005; E 0.005 plus N 0.005; N 0.005 
N 0.005 

E 0.005; E 0.01 
A 0.04 



0.1 


0.6 




.5 




.1 







.05 


0.25 





2.0 


Energine 




2.0 





1.0 




0.5 




Benzene 




0.5 


2.0 




1.0 








A 0.04 

A 0.04; A 0.04 plus ethylene dichloride 1.0, or 

pyrethrins 0.005 
A 0.04 



A 0.04 
A 0.04 
A 0.04 



Xylene 

1.0 1.0 A 0.04 

0.5 1.0 A 0.04 

Dimethyl 
formamide 



10.0 

5.0 0; A 0.02 

1.0 

Qrthodichloro- 
benzene 



.5 





A 0.04 


.25 


0.5 


A 0.02 




.25 


A 0.02 


.1 


.35 


A 0.02 







A 0.02 









mi 

3 1262 09239 6174 







. 


. 














. 


. 






. 












' • . 







Ifi LI 

Summa: 



Asparagus g s and processors have sui om 

t h ( . - paragus beeth ■ 

,p at t v e of harvest. C ntamination • ese 

ondemnation and seizure by state and federal food 

. 

studies . 50 an ' 

.. j such contamination without a g 

[•hi nain effort was c« m the 

that could be used in the washing o; 

m in th< cessing plant. 

,0 formulate emulsions, wei I as 

mouth gallon glass jar. Fresh asparagus tip 
wr n nun :' eggs were placed in the formula 

minutes, and then rinsed : minutes in I 

int-inj lamination the foil ' «t 

■ 

jun • 

■ .